The Development of thinking in a child under 3 years
Thinking is the process of formation of representations about the world on the basis of accumulation and analysis of personal experience and also the ability on the basis of this experience to make predictions. Thinking gives you the opportunity to obtain such information about the phenomena and objects of the world which cannot be directly perceived by the senses (for example, information about the properties of matter, the laws of the historical process, etc.). Thinking is closely related to such a property of consciousness, such as memory.
Let us consider the main stages of development of thinking in a child under 3 years old.
From birth to 6 months the world is perceived by the baby in the categories of “here” and “now”. The child still “not started” memory, so there is no time sensitivity, and repeatability of events and phenomena; every object and situation is perceived as something unique.
Nevertheless, the cognitive needs of the child are very strong at this stage, and the kid quickly and successfully learns to perceive and process information. In 4-5 months are prerequisites for the development of the visual-active thinking, “responsible” for the perception of objects in the process of action with them. It appears in the process of practical activity and becomes the basis for the formation of more complex types of thinking. Gradually the child begins to recognize people and common objects that marks the development of memory.
Despite the fact that the baby at this age is not capable of verbal communication, he has quite a rich and ever-improving communication skills (he uses crying, intonation, facial expressions, gestures). This so-called talinguistiques stage of linguistic communication, it is very important for a successful intellectual and emotional development of the child .
From 6-9 months, due to the manipulation of objects subject environment (e.g., toys) baby begins to understand that a certain action can lead to a specific result (for example, if you knock rattle, she will do). This is the first stage in the development of logical thinking. In addition, the toddler eventually realizes that the world is not limited to what he perceives at any given moment through the senses. Another achievement in the development of the thinking child – he starts trying to relate words with objects of the surrounding reality. This is an important stage in his language development.
From 9 months, the child begins to categorize objects that marks the beginning of abstract thinking. Of course, while this is still the most primitive sensual abstraction — selection of some properties or qualities of the subject at the expense of the other (for example, a child believes “air” all animals with fluffy tails). However for a child it is a huge progress! And, of course, continues the development of language: to the year the child can consciously say on average 5-10 words.
With 12 months continues the development of logic; the child begins to understand cause-and-effect relationship between not only some simple actions, but also between some events. He can already think prospectively and retrospectively (understands that recently ate, and soon will go for a walk). Some children already show a tendency to a particular kind of activity and even abilities in any field (in some good ways to collect puzzles, others paint, others interested in poetry and fairy tales, etc.)
From 18 months, the child begins to consciously identify and remember the characteristics of the objects (size, color, shape). In parallel with memory and abstract thinking develops and imagination — the ability to simulate in the mind of situations based on real experience. Most likely, in a year and a half the child began to show interest in the most simple role-playing games (e.g., collecting bag and is that goes to the store). A new leap in the development of language — the kid’s no longer just names of individual objects or actions, and attempts to comprehensively describe the situation (e.g., subject+action, object+its location, etc.). To achieve this goal, he tries to formulate whole sentences.
With 2 years in the baby began to create an integrated and coherent picture of the world – get ready, soon will begin the era of “thousand why”. However, while your baby is not so much asking questions, how many comments on everything that happens around him and calls you on the dialogue, but this is only the beginning! Encourage curiosity crumbs and telling him about something, try to keep your information was clear and internally consistent. Read her informative books, go to museums and the zoo; pay attention to training children’s Board games – with their help, the baby can also learn a lot. Encourage the child to Express a point of view on those or other phenomena: not only will this help to develop the child’s speech – so you will contribute to a “training” his logical thinking. Continues the development of memory: the tot is already quite clearly captures their memories and to talk about them.
With 2.5-3 years the child develops a full visual-figurative thinking: of the actions previously carried out with real objects, children can now play at the level of representations. Imagination combined with proven skills (drawing, sculpting, etc.) allows the baby to start a creative activity. Another significant stage in the development of the thinking child – the beginning of the formation of consciousness, that is, the perception of oneself as a person with certain characteristics and qualities (read here an article about the formation of a child ).
How to stimulate the development of thinking in the child?
In his bestseller “After three late” the issue pays a lot of attention Masaru Ibuka. Japanese engineer, co-founder of Sony and a specialist in the field of early child development. Here are some of the original recommendations from Mr. Ibuka.
In the first years of life the child has great potential to learn. Don’t short it in the space of the playpen or crib. The more the baby will get new experiences at the initial stage, the more developed it will grow. Love him and take this for what it is, – a sense of security will give him extra incentive to the study of the environment.
Do not decide for the child that he “too hard”, give him the opportunity to choose between Mickey mouse and the music of Bach. If your baby interested in something, it means that he is “master”.
Try to encourage the child “work” with both hands (not just “main”). Train the fine motor skills of both hands promotes the development of both hemispheres of the brain.
Don’t limit the imagination of a child their notions of “right” and “wrong”. Give him the opportunity to improvise, to draw a green triangle apples and turn an old Shoe into a fairytale carriage.
Expand your social circle baby. Grandparents, peers – all of them will contribute to the expanding horizons of the child, gain new experiences and skills