The education and development of preschool children.
PERSONALITY is man as a social being, a bearer of social consciousness.
The essence of a person is manifested through the relationship into which he enters with the outside world and especially with people. This includes all of the relationships that develop between people (in the family, in the community in everyday communication, etc.) Thus, the concept of “personality” describes the man as a social being associated with the assimilation of that diverse spiritual experiences in society. One is not born a personality, and it becomes in the course of their life.
Development is a process of quantitative and qualitative changes of the inherited and acquired properties of the individual.
People in the course of his life developing in several respects:
-physical development – change height, weight, volume of a human body;
-physiological development – change of physiological processes (e.g., puberty);
mental development is the enrichment of the Fund of conditional reflexes, development of character, development of memory, thinking, emotional-volitional sphere, etc.;
social development is evident in the complexity of relationships with the environment, which takes people throughout his life the Source of all development, including individual development, are internal contradictions. For example, the contradiction between the requirements of society and the actual level of child development, the contradiction between the needs of the child and the possibilities of satisfying them, the contradiction between the desire of the child for independence and his need for help from an adult, the contradiction between purposeful impacts and natural influences of the social environment, etc. These contradictions and act as driving forces in the development of personality
Factors influencing personality development: heredity, environment and education.
HEREDITY is the genetic program of biological signs a child receives from their parents at birth
ENVIRONMENT is the surrounding social, material, spiritual, the natural conditions of its existence, formation and activity, as well as a collection of people connected by common of these conditions.
The child inherits from his parents following characteristics:
-anatomical and physiological structure of a biological species “Homo sapiens” (the structure of the body, internal organs, their functioning, etc.);
-unconditioned reflexes (sucking, saliva, defensive, tentative, etc.);
-physical characteristics (features of the physique, facial features, hair color, skin, eyes, etc.);
functional characteristics (blood type, the nature of metabolism, etc.);
-anomalies of genetic origin (color blindness, hemophilia, crazy. disease, etc.);
-features of the nervous system (strength of excitation and inhibition, their balance and mobility);
The material carriers of heredity are the genes (genotype).
However, this hereditary baggage is only a necessary. but insufficient, condition, potential, a prerequisite for the subsequent development of the person. A significant role is given to the social environment and upbringing.
Habitat can be divided into natural (geographical) and social. The concept of the natural environment include: climate, resource, environment and other Social environment surrounding the child, can be divided into macro-environment and microenvironment. Under the macro-environment refers to the whole society, social structure: a socio-economic, political, moral and legal conditions of life. The term “microenvironment” refers to the immediate environment of the person. Soda can be attributed to material living conditions of a child’s life, preschool, where he is brought up, as well as people that interact with your preschooler. Macromedia does not affect the person directly. This influence was primarily through microenvironment. The social environment acts as a determining factor in personality development. Only “living in society, man may have evolved as a person.
EDUCATION – focused pedagogical process of organization and promotion of active work of forming the personality on the mastery of the totality of social experience.
The process of formation of the personality of the person is carried out in the conditions of education by assigning public-hysterical experience of mankind, the Management of its development carried out by adults. Eventually, the person is included in the system of social relations of the society in which he lives. Therefore, education plays a leading role in the development of child’s personality.
To master the socio-historical experience helps the activity of a growing person. The activity of the individual is expressed through the heritance of the child, his vocpituemoe, learning, self-education and self-education. The activity of the personality of the preschool child finds its realization in a playful, informative, substantive, labor, educational, artistic activities, and in communication. The active position of the child in the activity makes it not only the object but also the subject of education.