The Development of curiosity and independence of children through experimentation”
Throughout early childhood, along with gaming activity, of great importance in the development of the child’s personality, in the process of socialization is a cognitive activity, which is understood not only as a process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and mainly as a search for knowledge, acquisition of knowledge independently or under the tactful guidance of an adult.
Many teachers G. M., Lyamin, A. P. Usova, E. A. Panko refers to the need of inclusion of preschool children in research activity, during which they could discover new properties of objects, their similarities and differences, giving them the opportunity to acquire knowledge independently.
Perhaps the most popular and most affordable method of research is observation. It is often applied and used in everyday life preschool, penetrating all spheres of children’s activities. To observe, one has to have an observation, which is called the sister care. Why a child on their own initiative notices in the subject, some new aspects and specific features? His perception attention are analytical in nature – it captures not just the object, it analyzes, compares, evaluates, and finds shared with others.
The need for the child to new experiences underlies the emergence and development of inexhaustible approximately research (search) activities aimed at cognition of the surrounding world. The more varied and intense search activity, the more new information is received by the child, the faster and better it develops.
Search activity is fundamentally different from any other in that the image of the target that defines the activity itself has not yet formed, and is characterized by uncertainty, instability. During the search he clarified, clearing up.
According to academician N. N. Podyakova, “…in the activities of experimentation, the child acts as a kind of researcher, acting independently in a variety of ways on the surrounding objects and phenomena in order to broaden their knowledge and development”. The process of learning is a creative process, and our goal is to support and develop the child’s interest in studies and discoveries, and to create the necessary conditions for this.
N. N. Poddyakov distinguishes two main types of research (exploratory) activity in preschool children: the first is characterized by the fact that the activity in the course of business entirely comes from the child, he acts as her full-fledged entity, independently building the activity: set goals, looking for ways and means to achieve them and, in this case, the child in the activities of experimentation meets their needs, their interests. The second type of research activity is organised for adults, which highlights the essential elements of the situation, teaches the child to a certain algorithm of actions. Thus, the child receives the results were pre-determined adults.
For a child’s development is crucial not abundance of knowledge and methods and activities in which knowledge is acquired.
Causes occurring intellectual passivity children often lie in the limited intellectual experiences, interests of the child. However, being unable to cope with the simplest task, children quickly doing it if it is translated into practice or in the game, the child learns the object in the course of practical activity with him. By the child practical action perform cognitive, research function, creating the conditions in which the contents of the object.
Chinese proverb says: “Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, let me try and I’ll understand”. Absorbed all firmly and permanently, when the child hears, sees, and does everything himself. In the process of experimentation preschooler gets the opportunity to satisfy their inherent curiosity, to find the answer to many interesting questions: Why? Why? How? What if, to become a scientist, researcher, discoverer. While the adult – not the teacher – mentor, and an equal partner, partner activity that allows the child to Express his own research activity. Here is based on this and the introduction of children’s experimentation in the practice of the preschool institution. The center for independent experimentation and exploratory activities for children.
Requirements for the design and content of the centre for experimental activities:
1. Materials . located in the area are divided into sections: “Sand and water”, “Sound”, “Magnets”, “Paper”, “Glass”, “rubber”, etc. available for experimentation place and in sufficient quantity.
2. Prominently posted rules of work with the material. Together with children are developed legend permitting and prohibiting signs.
3. Material . located in the area should correspond to the average level of development of the child. You must also have the materials and equipment to conduct more complex experiments, designed for children with a high level of development.
4. Equipment :
Devices – helpers . magnifying glass, scales, sand clock, compass, magnets, measuring tape, ruler.
A variety of vessels of different materials (plastic, glass, metal) with different volume and shape.
The natural material . cones, clay, sand, seashells, bird feathers, saw cut and the leaves of the trees, moss, seeds, etc.
A recycled material . wire, pieces of skin, fur, fabric, plastic, wood, cork, etc.
Technical material . nuts, clips, bolts, screws, detail design etc.
Different types of paper . ordinary, cardboard, sandpaper, copy, etc.
Dyes . gouache, watercolor, etc. Medical materials . pipettes, flasks, wooden sticks, syringes (without needles), scoops, containers, rubber bulb, etc.
Other materials . mirrors, balloons, flour, salt, sugar, colored and transparent glass nail files, a sieve, candles, etc.
5. Additional hardware . Baby bathrobes, oilcloth aprons, containers for storing small and loose items. Card – scheme experiments on thick paper. Diary of experiments with a sketch of the course of the experiment.
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8.The material from the web site.